TRANSFORMATION: A MEANS OF GENETIC TRANSFER

Transformation is the genetic alteration of the cell that’s the consequence of uptake, incorporation and expression of exogenous genetic material that is taken up through cell membrane. It happens in bacteria and some species in a pure manner. Transformation is also brought about be artificial ways. Bacteria that bear the capacity of getting transformation either by their own or by artificial means are termed as competent. Genetic material can be exchanged between two bacterial cells either by conjugation or transduction. Conjugation involves direct transfer of genetic material from one cell to the other through contact. Introduction of the foreign DNA into the eukaryotic cells is known as transfection. Transduction can also be used as a tool for the introduction of foreign DNA to a non-bacterial cell that might be either a plant cell or an animal cell.

Transgender Bio-Hacking was first demonstrated by an English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 who had been searching for a vaccine against bacterial pneumonia. He discovered that a harmless strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae can be produced virulent if exposed to the heat killed virulent strains. He suspected that there’s some shifting variable gift that has the potential for making the harmless and non-virulent strain to become virulent and harmful. They isolated the DNA in the virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and with the support of the genetic material they could make the benign non-virulent strain. They predicted this uptake and incorporation of DNA by the germs as transforamation. Transformation didn’t come to be the normal procedure until 1972 when Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang and Leslie Hsu successfully transformed Escherichia coli by treating the germs with calcium chloride. They created an efficient and convenient procedure that became a milestone in the business of biotechnology and research.

Transformation with electroporation was designed in the late 1980s once the efficiency and the amount of bacterial cells can be increased via conversion. Transformation of plant cell and animal cell was also started and the first transgenic mouse was produced in 1982. In 1907 a bacterium named as Agrobacterium tumefaciens was found which was responsible for inducing tumors at the plants and the tumor causing agent was discovered to be DNA plasmid called Ti-plasmid. Bacterial transformation could be called as a stable genetic change caused by uptake of foreign DNA and competence might be defined as the state of being able to take the exogenous DNA from the environment. Competence may be artificial or natural. About 1 percent of the bacterial population can take the DNA naturally beneath the laboratory conditions and a lot more species have been known to take up the foreign DNA within their normal surroundings. These germs take a set of enzymes that supply the protein machines to bring the DNA across the cell membrane.